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OSU Extension

College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences

April 17, 2018 - 7:59am -- Anonymous

Avoid Compaction

The clock is ticking on the 2018-planting season and cold soil temperatures and wet soils signal a late start and what could turn into a compressed planting season.  In this situation, the temptation is always to push the envelope and get into the fields when the soil conditions are less than ideal, usually too wet.  Working wet soil increases soil compaction.  However, the tyranny of the urgent, to get the 2018 crop planted, crowds out the knowledge that soil compaction reduces yield and worst, produces long term consequences with no easy solution.  The culprit we are most concerned with regarding soil compaction is wheel traffic of heavy equipment and machinery, leading to compaction depths of two feet or greater.   Before rushing into your fields this spring, consider the comments from Alan Sundermeier, Extension Educator in Wood County, in a recent OSU Extension CORN newsletter:

“Heavy farm machinery compacts the soil, both on tilled ground and no-tilled ground. Compaction induced by agricultural machinery often affects soil properties and crop production. Axle load is the first factor to consider in soil compaction, according to Randall Reeder, Ohio State University Emeriti and Dr. Sjoerd Duiker, Penn State Soil Specialist. Axle load is the total load supported by one axle, usually expressed in tons or pounds. Farm equipment with high axle loads on wet soil will cause compaction in the topsoil and subsoil, whereas low axle loads will cause compaction in the topsoil and the upper part of the subsoil only.

Deep subsoil compaction is only partially alleviated with subsoilers, and at considerable cost. Freezing/thawing and drying/wetting cycles do not remediate soil compaction at this depth. Finally, biological activity (such as cover crops) is concentrated in the topsoil except deep root crops (e.g. radish or annual ryegrass) and so contributes little to alleviation of deep subsoil compaction. Therefore, avoiding deep subsoil compaction is critical. The key to eliminating deep subsoil compaction is to keep axle load low.

Research has shown that a 10-ton axle load almost always causes deep subsoil compaction (more than 20 inches deep) under wet to moist field conditions. If the soil is dry, deep subsoil compaction is less likely, even with high axle loads.

Contact pressure is the pressure exerted by a tire or track on the soil surface, expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). Reducing contact pressures will cause less topsoil compaction. In completely flexible tires, surface contact pressure is similar to tire pressure. Tires run at 35 psi caused higher stresses at 14 inches depth and created ruts that were more than twice as deep as tires run at 12-psi tire pressure. However, at 22 inches, no difference was noted in measured stress between both tires because the tire load was the same.

Deep subsoil compaction is permanent and should be avoided at all costs. This can be done by keeping axle loads below 10 tons, and preferably below 6 tons.  Avoid compaction in the topsoil by reducing tire pressure, using flotation tires, doubles, radial tires, or tracks, and by employing large-diameter tires. Reducing the number of trips over the field and reducing the total area per acre actually traveled are recommended practices. Avoid driving on soil that is wetter than the plastic limit (soil crumbles, ideal for tillage).

More information is available at